THE SAGA OF MH 370


08/03/2014 THE TRAGEDY OF FLIGHT MH-370       

A scheduled international passenger flight that disappeared on Saturday, 8 March 2014, while flying from Kuala Lumpur International Airport, Malaysia to Beijing Capital International Airport, People's Republic of China. Air traffic control received the aircraft's last message at 01:20 MYT (17:20 UTC, 7 March) when it was over the South China Sea, less than an hour after takeoff.  

It was last plotted by military radar at 02:15 over the Andaman Sea, 320 kilometres (200 mi) northwest of Penang state in northwestern Malaysia.  At 07:24, Malaysia Airlines (MAS) reported the flight missing.  The aircraft, a Boeing 777-200ER, was carrying 12 Malaysian crew members and 227 passengers from 15 nations.

A multinational search effort, which became the largest and most expensive in history, began in the Gulf of Thailand and the South China Sea, where the flight’s signal was lost on secondary surveillance radar, and was soon extended to the Strait of Malacca and Andaman Sea.  


The focus of the search shifted to the southern part of the Indian Ocean, west of Australia. An analysis of possible flight paths was conducted, identifying a 23,000 sq. mi search area, approximately 1,200 mi. west of Perth, Western Australia.  The underwater search of this area began on 5 October 2014 and will last up to 12 months at a cost of  $60 million (approximately US$56 million or €41 million).

I disagreed with this assumption.

There has been no confirmation of any flight debris, and no crash site has been found, resulting in many unofficial theories about its disappearance. Analysis of these communications by multiple agencies has concluded that the flight ended in the southern Indian Ocean.  On 24 March, the Malaysian government, noting that the final location determined by the satellite communication was far from any possible landing sites, concluded that "flight MH370 ended in the southern Indian Ocean.” 

At the time of its disappearance, and if the presumption of a loss of all lives aboard can be verified, MH370 would have been the deadliest aviation incident in the history of Malaysia Airlines and the deadliest involving a Boeing 777.
MH370 was surpassed in both regards just 131 days later by the crash of another Malaysia Airlines Boeing 777, Flight 17, that was shot down over Ukraine on 17 July 2014, killing all 298 people aboard. SYDNEY (AP) — A team of international investigators hunting for missing Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 said Tuesday it has concluded the plane is unlikely to be found in a stretch of the Indian Ocean search crews have been combing for two years, and may instead have crashed in an area farther to the North.

I SAID THIS ALMOST THREE YEARS AGO...I HAVE STATED THAT ON THIS SITE, AT LESS
THAN 50 DAYS AFTER THE JET WENT MISSING, AND STILL BELIEVE I AM RIGHT

The latest analysis of the plane's whereabouts comes in a report from the Australian Transport Safety Bureau, which is leading the search for the aircraft.  The report is the result of a November meeting of international and Australian experts who re-examined all the data used to narrow down the search area for the plane, which vanished during a flight from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing on March 8, 2014, with 239 people on board.

In the years since the plane disappeared, experts have analyzed a series of exchanges between the aircraft and a satellite to estimate a probable crash site along what's known as the seventh arc — a vast arc of ocean that runs through the southern hemisphere. A deep sea search of a 120,000-square kilometer (46,000-square mile) stretch of water along the seventh arc has so far come up empty.

 

DISCLAIMER AND MANY THANKS TO THOSE WHOSE WORK IS APPRECIATED
Many of the things we see and hear titled under the banner of bad news sometimes bogles my mind, at least when things just don't add up.  Because when something bad happens there is usually a series or events leading up to the catastrophe that could of, or should have been avoided.  And solving the problems is a question of putting the right parts in the right order 

Being a Pilot for 30+ years, and being an avid reader of  FAA crash and incident reports,  I learned the phrase “Chain of events and catastrophe are linked words”.   Learning from others mistakes avoids you making them.  And many answers are unanswered or not the way I might see things.  

•  These are my findings after scads of research in an effort to “get to the bottom of things”.
•   I am not a conspiracy advocate looking for an agenda.   Many “would throw the hounds off the game”.  
•   All the research I do is double checked, verified and the truth to the best of my ability.

This webpage and additive information has been compiled from a  myriad of sources,  much of which has been published in depth, repeated, repeated again reflecting the tragedy, investigation, and the several changed theories on the loss of MH-370. When available the authors, reporters, concerned executives, government employees, and soothsayers names have been mentioned, and I apologize if I missed someone.

  

THE TRUTH
227 passengers, 12 crew and the world deserve to have the truth out and I put this collection together in the flying publics interest.  Wikipedia has the most complete synopsis of the incident compiled but without positive identification of the major portions of the aircraft, nothing is written in stone.

My theory, documented,  which I wrote and documented starting at 30 days and completed 60 days after sensing the botched investigation; probes the mishandling and mistrust of the Malaysian government and is as viable as anyone else’s; It’s getting better in fact;   

Unfortunately,  it may never be proven if the wreckage is not found.   My theory now only recently shared as of twenty months ago by a growing number of experts is based on several qualifications. I am not a professional investigator, nor make any claims other than the following.  I merely have to satisfy my curiosity and hopefully help seek a salutation for those suffering a loss.

They have announced the closing of the search if something is not found shortly... and just announced they might have been looking in the wrong ocean or part thereof for that matter.  

This were more than three tragedies:
•  The loss of the aircraft and lives.
•  The failure of global aircraft tracking systems in place.
•  The total misguided attempts to locate the aircraft.
•  Total incompetence of the Malaysian Government and Aviation Division
•  Poor Maintenance on all their aircraft 
•  Blamesmanship
• Possible conspiracy involving unsafe cargo handling and possible Cargo being tagged wrong for profit.

 

LATEST CONSPIRACY THEORY  5/15/2018  NO PROOF - LOOKING FOR BLAME

All but one of the 239 people on the doomed Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 had probably been unconscious — incapacitated by the sudden depressurization of the Boeing 777 — and had no way of knowing they were on an hours-long, meandering path to their deaths.

Along that path, a panel of aviation experts said Sunday, was a brief but telling detour near Penang, Malaysia, the home town of Captain Zaharie Ahmad Shah.  On two occasions, whoever was in control of the plane — and was probably the only one awake — tipped the craft to the left.   The “ experts”  believe Zaharie, the plane’s pilot, was taking a final look.  How about from the Command seat of the 777, which is on the left, if you were blacking out you would lean left and turn left against the autopilot.


TABLOID THINKING

That is the chilling theory that the team of analysts assembled by Australia’s “60 Minutes” have posited about the final hours of MH370.  They suspect that the plane's 2014 disappearance and apparent crash were a suicide by the 53-year-0ld Zaharie — and a premeditated act of mass murder.  Here is how he supposedly did it.

•   The experts said, they believe that Zaharie depressurized the plane, knocking out anyone aboard who wasn’t wearing an oxygen mask. That would explain the silence from the plane as it veered wildly off course: no mayday from the craft's radio, no final goodbye texts, no attempted emergency calls that failed to connect.

•  That would also explain how whoever was in control had time to maneuver the plane to its final location.  The secret of what happened in the final moments of the ill-fated flight died with its passengers and pilot.

•  “The thing that gets discussed the most is that at the point where the pilot turned the transponder off, that he depressurized the airplane, which would disable the passengers,” said Larry Vance, a veteran aircraft investigator from Canada. “He was killing himself. Unfortunately, he was killing everyone else onboard. And he did it deliberately.”

•  Zaharie’s suspected suicide might explain an oddity about the plane's final flight path: that unexpected turn to the left.  “Captain Zaharie dipped his wing to see Penang, his home town,” Simon Hardy, a Boeing 777 senior pilot and instructor, said on “60 Minutes.”

•  “If you look very carefully, you can see it’s actually a turn to the left, and then start a long turn to the right. And then he does another left turn. So, I spent a long time thinking about what this could be, what technical reason is there for this, and, after two months, three months thinking about this, I finally got the answer: Someone was looking out the window.”

“It might be a long, emotional goodbye,” Hardy added. “Or a short, emotional goodbye to his home town.”

•  But the “60 Minutes” experts tried to answer one of the biggest questions surrounding the flight: How could a modern aircraft tracked by radar and satellites simply disappear? Because, they say, Zaharie wanted it to. And the veteran pilot, who had nearly 20,000 hours of flight experience and had built a flight simulator in his home, knew exactly how to do it.

•  For example, at one point, he flew near the border of Malaysia and Thailand, crisscrossing into the airspace of both, Hardy said. But neither country was likely to see the plane as a threat because it was on the edge of their airspace.
“Both of the controllers aren't bothered about this mysterious aircraft because, oh, it's gone, it's not in our space anymore,” Hardy said. “If you were commissioning me to do this operation and try to make a 777 disappear, I would do the same thing. As far as I'm concerned, it's very accurate flying, and it did the job.”

 

MY DEPOSITION and ANALYZATION

DISCLAIMER:  Three years ago...I claim no formal training in this field, no titles, nor any fancy accredited plaques on my walls.  

•  However I do bring some hands-on experience as a battery manufacturer in business for the past fifty years, able to recognize characteristics and differences of the various chemistries or formulas of batteries especially the dangerous idiosyncrasies of the Lithium family.  I have seen and experienced the dangers of Lithium batteries.

•  I am also a General Aviation Pilot with ratings sometimes right seat corporate pilot, with several thousand hours, worked on the electronics and mechanical aspects of my own personal airplanes over almost thirty years.  I fixed and flew, survived a few incidents, including onboard fires and never lost an airplane or persons onboard.  I never stopped training and honestly can say I almost replaced my underwear a few times but survived.  I had my excitement, used that training and walked away.

•  My readership on five of my websites is about investigative reporting at my pace, in the food, religion and the political business.  To me Tabloids are good for wrapping fish, only if they suffered and died from Red Tide.

•  I have been called a pitbull and several other unpleasant names.  Thus three elements, a knowledge of the batteries, aviation systems, and experience as a bloodhound in another life leads me to believe what I believe.

•  And I own an advanced simulator with Boeing approved software for the 777 that uses an FMS and probably have 1000 hours in it.


MY QUESTIONS AND CONCLUSIONS
Being an investigative reporter, I made it known I did not care for the explanations of the Malaysian appointed government spokespersons.  Call it instinct, I still have my brains and my thought processes at my age.

At the bottom line, someone did something wrong, and it led to a chain of events and concluded when things went horribly bad.  I suspect and submit the following in theory and steps.

  1. The trigger possibly was the Lithium Cargo, 500 lbs. of laptop batteries or cells
  2. The mysterious 5000 pounds, of unknown or disclosed electronic assemblies, possibly Lithium being shipped at a lower rate.  Lithium does not take well to shorting, temp changes, or pressure changes. And airlines charge higher rates for dangerous cargo.  It requires specific packing and shipping regulations to the letter.
  3. The possibility exists of someone in collusion with the designation of the 5000 lbs of unknown as components, a lithium battery with two wire tails on it is a component.  Basically : Lithium is an unexploded bomb.
  4. If something triggered a loose package in the Unexplained 5000 pounds of cargo, the whole place might have gone off.
  5. Halon leaking upward from the fire extinguisher in the front cargo bay killed the two man crew.  Halon kills in ten seconds if makes are not on.
  6. Theory:  The aircraft turned to a heading taking it to the nearest land and repair facility, Penang.   Thats the theory the conspiracy theorist are using against the captain, that the Captain wanted to see his last view of his tow.
  7.  Might have been the last action of the crew.  The Halon could have gotten into the passenger cabin after eliminating the two man crew.
  8. The FMS brought the aircraft to 12,000 feet and maintained a heading.  It flew till it exhausted its fuel.  If the fire spread to the Instrument Service bay, just aft of the front cargo hold, that explains the shutoff of the com equipment. If the fire didn’t kill some of the instruments, the extreme cold of the Halon or the fire could have
  9. There was sufficient fuel to take it and I have stood from the beginning on a more northernly.  Any or most of the instrument controlled by hand commonly turn to the right.  Just call it luck and intuition and hours on the computer, now being the latest guess by the commission.
  10. Again, several points seemed to be ignored.  The simplistic equation applied or known to most aircraft accidents and incidents is that most occurrences are cumulative, signs ignored, missteps adding up, usually to a finale.   The missing plane is the result of either  a combination of bad judgements, and/or illegal play, foul play, or stupid assumptions, but most likely some rule was broken
  11. I’m betting against pilot error, both were experienced and the alien abduction theory does not work for me, the smoking gun is the cargo manifest and it’s declarations is the answer.   If the plane is found and the pallet containing almost 5000 ponds of unknown electronic components was actually more unstable Lithium batteries at a cheaper tariff rate, someone knew this.  And the shipment was not packed correctly or legally.  That would be a coverup by the Malaysian Government.
  12. The criminal here could have been the shipper trying to hide more Lithium for a lower rate, the inspector, the ramp senior agent, someone who took a bribe, someone higher up in the Malaysian government involved.  If anything that would be a conspiracy theory but if true, with a very bad ending.
  13. Then a fire in the front cargo hold by unsecured Lithium,  Halon went off permeated the cockpit, directly above before they passed out, one of them hit or actuated the flight director to return course,  made the turn toward  the repair facility and then the auto pilot decent (part of front cargo hold fire procedure),  app the held plane on course for four hours with dead crew from the Halon. 
  14. Too much of a coverup since the last two Boeing freighters that went down and one that lit off on the ramp were traced and from Lithium battery generated fires.
  15. Finding the flaperon NW of Australia indicates to me the search areas have been too far south in the indian ocean.  My search area would have been 1000 to 1600 miles WNW of Penang, the Malaysian support facility for their aircraft and radar footprint of the planes passing.  


NEWS AND DETAILS 12/26/2015 - NOT MUCH HELP

New insights into the search for missing flight MH370, and what happens the moment the jet is found, were explained at a briefing for members of the Surveying and Spatial Sciences Institute in Perth recently.

Paul Kennedy, MH370 Search Project Director, Fugro Survey, took the audience through the same induction video shown to recruits before they joined the three vessels that are sonar scanning the priority zones in the southern Indian Ocean that are believed most likely to contain the sunk wreckage of the jet.

At the outset he reminds the audience that the so called seventh arc along which the priority zones are located is different from the earlier arcs which represented places MH370 could have been when it send automated pings to an engine performance monitoring site at Rolls-Royce in Derby via an Inmarsat satellite and ground stations.

This last and unexpected transmission from the jet was initiated by the failure of its engine generated electrical supply and the automated deployment of a ram air turbine that popped out of the fuselage to generate emergency power as the jet fell toward the sea.

With the help of audience members Mr Kennedy unrolled a large scroll of the seabed in the seventh arc priority zone that stretched across the room and out one door which had mapped its features and their depths with sufficient accuracy to prevent deep sea ‘tow fish’ or sonar scanning platforms being towed into the side of underwater obstacles like volcanic craters while surveying the terrain from a height of around 100 meters.

On that map MH370 would only have been a small dot, and it is of course covered in dots, and often convoluted terrain, with deep fissures and troughs and sea mounts and cliffs.

Mr Kennedy said the Boeing 777 would only have subtended half a millimeter in size on the waist high scroll unfolded across the room.

 

BREAKING NEWS - FINALLY DECLARED LOST
Malaysia Flight MH370 disappeared on March 8, 2014. After leaving Kuala Lumpur, it was supposed to be headed to its destination in Beijing, China. Unfortunately, the plane and its 277 passengers and 14 crew members have never been seen again. While it has been thought that the plane ended up in the southern portion of the Indian Ocean, every one of the numerous search operations have totally failed to find anything related to the lost aircraft. The Malaysian Insider has reported that the search for the lost Boeing 777 jetliner over the past three-quarters of a year has not only been the most expansive aviation search in history, but it has been the most costly aviation investigation ever, as well. 

Malaysia Airlines FlightMH17 was also met with ill fate on July 17, 2014. On that date, the aircraft was shot down by a surface-to-air missile. That incident, 298 people were onboard the flight that was over eastern Ukraine. On the flight were 27 Australians, 43 Malaysians, and 193 persons from the Netherlands. 


LOTS OF THEORIES, CONSPIRACIES 

In the first weeks of the disappearance of Flight MH-370, I stood the course.  As a pilot I know the first information about disasters is not always accurate and you have to let the authorities play out their role in the investigation to find the truth.

Something stood out to me that may have been the game changer.   I made a few statements about the disappearance of MH370 as soon as I had learned about the cargo manifest.  I had mentioned it to friends, relatives, fellow pilots, strangers and a few conspiratorialists who were claiming the usual:  

•  Human error
•  Terrorists
•  Deranged pilots
•  Alien  lifeforms and abductions
•  Malaysia’s enemies
•  The Communists
•  Al Qaeda,  ISIS, 
•  Klingon tractor beams from a Bird of Prey
•  Recently fired employees.  


COVERUP THEORY
The countries close to the Malaysia Airlines MH370, the passenger jetliner that disappeared with 239 persons aboard last March 8, are being accused of a cover-up. The accusation comes from Des Ross, an aviation advisor in South Sudan, who claims that there must have been recordings that would tell more of the mysterious story of the flight that went missing, but Australia and Malaysia officials are not providing the public with all the information they must have had.   

According to the International Business Times on Sunday, there should have been various audio recordings contained in records and hard disks that would detail what transpired during the first four hours that the Malaysia Airlines MH370 plane went missing. 

However, alleged recordings from that crucial period of time have not been released to the public. Des Ross who has 35 years of aviation industry experience is now asking what was on those recordings – and blatantly and accusatorially asking Malaysia and Austria why they have been so protective of the recordings which most likely exist. 

He asked, “What needed to be kept secret from the world even when 239 people were lost?” He stated that the Malaysian Air Force has the ability to intercept an unidentified aircraft, and he accuses the military of continuing to without such information. 

Ross insists that there has been absolutely no information made available to the public regarding the first four hours the plane went missing and further insists that such information is in existence - but still kept a secret. He asserts that a recording between Ho Chi Minh City and air traffic controllers in Kuala Lumpur, via a voice-data link, has information about that crucial time during the mysterious plane disappearance that has never been made public. He says that such data is kept for 30 days. 

Additionally, Ross asserts that if there is no recording of communications between the civil air traffic controller at the Kuala Lumpur control center and a military air defense officer, the non-existence of such a recording would result in an act of criminal negligence. He insists, however, “Nobody can tell us that the recordings do not exist.” He continued by saying that the two nations – Australia and Malaysia – could be accused of covering up vital information which would help the families and independent investigators work out what happened to the aircraft.


THOUGHTS 

Though I retired from flying eight years ago, and sold my last plane, I still relish those few thousand hours, sneak a ride here and there from friends occasionally to stay sharp.  I still keep my hands in the keyboard simulator because it keeps my mind at seven and a half decades plus conception alert.   Dead brains create Depression, lead to Alzheimer’s and Dementia and I use mine every hour awake because at 76 things get slower.  

My unit has the main input controllers and I have set the course changes and emergency descents  from compression loss, front cargo fire,  or loss of the pilots.  I believe the lithium cells lit off the Halon fire extinguishers in the forward did their job extinguish an impossible fire to extinguish, fire can suck the air from ones lungs in seconds depending on the concentration.  

A chain reaction due to the huge amount of suspected Lithium igniting off in the front cargo hold was triggered. The cargo hold is forward of the instrument bay hold below the pilots.  The instruments are protected by an exhaust system which sucks air from the instant bay which does not use Halon.  

Halon destroys instrumentation, computers etc and explains the loss of transponders. A lithium fire is more than a fire, it burns with unbelievable speed and temperature and possibly based on the amount caused a chain reaction which went to the Instrument Bay. then the fire go to the instrument bay and everything died except the autopilot and course settings which are very redundant on there channels on the 777.


WE’LL LOOK AT THE COMPONENTS - BOEING FLIGHT-MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 777

FMS 777
The flight management system operates on a sophisticated level in many ways like the Garmin GPS in your car, with waypoints programmed in between the origin and the destination. You program in where you are going, and off it goes. The difference is when on and programmed properly it “Drives” the aircraft. Up ( Climb) Across (Cruise) and Down (Decent) safely.  The FMS will allow the airplane to hook up that routing with the autopilot, and maintain the heading within a few feet. It's amazingly accurate. 

ACARS SYSTEM
ACARS is a data transmission system, a method of communicating information to the dispatch center, maintenance, or to anybody who needs information from the airplane itself or from the cockpit.  Some parts are automatic and others are manual input. Lets say I'm flying toward a place where there's a thunderstorm en route, and my dispatcher may send me an ACARS text message saying, "There's a thunderstorm, consider rerouting." I'll send back a message saying, "I got it, thanks," and then I may notify the dispatch. ACARS messages can be sent by text, but some aircraft have the ability to uplink by voice as well. The system also allows us to pull up the weather.

FIRE SUPPRESSION 
Without delay, close thrust levers, extend speed brakes, and descend at VMO/MMO. Level off at lowest safe altitude or 10,000 feet, whichever is higher.  If structural integrity is in doubt, limit airspeed and avoid high maneuvering loads.  Plan to land at the nearest suitable airport.   Note: Equipment cooling normal mode is inoperative. After 30 minutes of operation at low altitude and low cabin differential pressure, electronic  equipment and displays may fail.

I think the last thing the pilot or co-pilot did was hit the Emergency Descent Button realizing they had a fire and a course change back to dry land they were familiar with and selecting 12,000 feet as enough altitude to make dry land. I think the halon or fumes killed them before they could do anything else.

NEW SYNOPSIS
07-21-2016 - Experts at the company leading the underwater hunt for missing Malaysia Airlines Flight MH370 say they believe the plane may have glided down rather than dived in the final moments, meaning they may have been scouring the wrong patch of ocean for two years.  Searchers led by engineering group Fugro have been battling rough seas to comb an area of ocean floor the size of Pennsylvania.  But with their mission almost complete, nothing has been found. 

Debris from the missing Boeing 777 has turned up on the shores of Africa, but nothing has been located in the 46,000 square mile section of the southern Indian Ocean that Fugro has been scanning. 

Fugro's controlled glide hypothesis is also the first time officials have given some support to contested theories that someone was in control during the flight's final moments. 

Published competing theories over whether one, both or no pilots were in control, whether it was hijacked — or whether all aboard perished and the plane was not controlled at all when it hit the water.  Adding to the mystery, investigators believe someone may have deliberately switched off the plane's transponder before diverting it thousands of miles.
 

THE GLIDE THEORY
The glide theory is not supported by the investigating agencies: America’s Boeing Co, France’s Thales SA, U.S. investigator the National Transportation Safety Board, British satellite company Inmarsat PLC, the U.K. Air Accidents Investigation Branch and the Australian Defense Science and Technology Organization. 

The meeting between officials from China, Australia and Malaysia is expected to discuss the future of the search. The three governments have previously agreed that unless any new credible evidence arises the search would not be extended, despite calls from victims' families. 

Any further search would require a fresh round of funding from the three governments on top of the almost $137 million that has already been spent, making it the most expensive in aviation history.   Deciding the search area in 2014, authorities assumed the plane had no "inputs" during its final descent, meaning there was no pilot or no conscious pilot. They believe it was on auto-pilot and spiraled when it ran out of fuel. 

But Kennedy said a skilled pilot could glide the plane approximately 120 miles from its cruising altitude after running out of fuel. One pilot told Reuters it would be slightly less than that.  For the aircraft to continue gliding after fuel has run out, someone must manually put the aircraft into a glide — nose down with controlled speed. 

"If you lose all power, the auto-pilot kicks out. If there is nobody at the controls, the aircraft will plummet down," said a captain with experience flying Boeing 777s. 

Fugro works on a "confidence level" of 95 percent, a statistical measurement used, in Fugro's case, to indicate how certain the plane debris was not in the area they have already combed, a seabed peppered with steep cliffs and underwater volcanoes. 

"The end-of-flight scenarios are absolutely endless," Fugro managing director Steve Duffield said. "Which wing ran out of fuel first, did it roll this way or did it tip that way?" 

The Australian Transport Safety Bureau (ATSB), the agency coordinating the search, has consistently defended the defined search zone. It did not immediately respond to questions over whether it was assessing the controlled glide theory. 

Authorities used data provided by Inmarsat to locate the likely plunge point through communication between the plane and satellite ground station.  "All survey data collected from the search for missing flight MH370 will be released,” an ATSB spokesman said. 

 

MH370 HALON

At high temperatures, halons decompose to release halogen atoms that combine readily with active hydrogen atoms, quenching flame propagation reactions even when adequate fuel, oxygen, and heat remain.   

The chemical reaction in a flame proceeds as a free radical chain reaction; by sequestering the radicals which propagate the reaction, halons are able to halt the fire at much lower concentrations than are required by fire suppressants using the more traditional methods of cooling, oxygen deprivation, or fuel dilution.

For example, Halon 1301 total flooding systems are typically used at concentrations no higher than 7% by volume in air, and can suppress many fires at 2.9% v/v. By contrast, carbon dioxide fire suppression flood systems operate from 34% concentration by volume (surface-only combustion of liquid fuels) up to 75% (dust traps). Carbon dioxide can cause severe distress at concentrations of 3–6%, and has caused death by respiratory paralysis in a few minutes at 10% concentration. 

Halon 1301 causes only slight giddiness at its effective concentration of 5%, and even at 15% those exposed remain conscious but impaired and suffer no long-term effects. (Experimental animals have also been exposed to 2% concentrations of Halon 1301 for 30 hours per week for 4 months, with no discernible health effects.) Halon 1211 also has low toxicity, although it is more toxic than Halon 1301, and thus considered unsuitable for flooding systems.

However, Halon 1301 fire suppression is not completely non-toxic; very high temperature flame, or contact with red-hot metal, can cause decomposition of Halon 1301 to toxic byproducts.

The presence of such byproducts is readily detected because they include hydrobromic acid and hydrofluoric acid, which are intensely irritating. Halons are very effective on Class A (organic solids), B (flammable liquids and gases) and C (electrical) fires, Halons can be used on Class K (kitchen oils and greases) fires, but offer no advantages over specialized foams.

But they are unsuitable for Class D (metal) fires, as they will not only produce toxic gas and fail to halt the fire, but in some cases pose a risk of explosion.   Aluminum under the right heat burns and it is a metal.

MORE

06-07-2019 aljacobsladder.com